# Source code for mars.tensor.stats.chisquare

```
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from .power_divergence import power_divergence
[docs]def chisquare(f_obs, f_exp=None, ddof=0, axis=0):
"""
Calculate a one-way chi-square test.
The chi-square test tests the null hypothesis that the categorical data
has the given frequencies.
Parameters
----------
f_obs : array_like
Observed frequencies in each category.
f_exp : array_like, optional
Expected frequencies in each category. By default the categories are
assumed to be equally likely.
ddof : int, optional
"Delta degrees of freedom": adjustment to the degrees of freedom
for the p-value. The p-value is computed using a chi-squared
distribution with ``k - 1 - ddof`` degrees of freedom, where `k`
is the number of observed frequencies. The default value of `ddof`
is 0.
axis : int or None, optional
The axis of the broadcast result of `f_obs` and `f_exp` along which to
apply the test. If axis is None, all values in `f_obs` are treated
as a single data set. Default is 0.
Returns
-------
chisq : float or ndarray
The chi-squared test statistic. The value is a float if `axis` is
None or `f_obs` and `f_exp` are 1-D.
p : float or ndarray
The p-value of the test. The value is a float if `ddof` and the
return value `chisq` are scalars.
See Also
--------
scipy.stats.power_divergence
Notes
-----
This test is invalid when the observed or expected frequencies in each
category are too small. A typical rule is that all of the observed
and expected frequencies should be at least 5.
The default degrees of freedom, k-1, are for the case when no parameters
of the distribution are estimated. If p parameters are estimated by
efficient maximum likelihood then the correct degrees of freedom are
k-1-p. If the parameters are estimated in a different way, then the
dof can be between k-1-p and k-1. However, it is also possible that
the asymptotic distribution is not chi-square, in which case this test
is not appropriate.
References
----------
.. [1] Lowry, Richard. "Concepts and Applications of Inferential
Statistics". Chapter 8.
https://web.archive.org/web/20171022032306/http://vassarstats.net:80/textbook/ch8pt1.html
.. [2] "Chi-squared test", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi-squared_test
Examples
--------
When just `f_obs` is given, it is assumed that the expected frequencies
are uniform and given by the mean of the observed frequencies.
>>> import mars.tensor as mt
>>> from mars.tensor.stats import chisquare
>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12])
(2.0, 0.84914503608460956)
With `f_exp` the expected frequencies can be given.
>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], f_exp=[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8]).execute()
(3.5, 0.62338762774958223)
When `f_obs` is 2-D, by default the test is applied to each column.
>>> obs = mt.array([[16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], [32, 24, 16, 28, 20, 24]]).T
>>> obs.shape
(6, 2)
>>> chisquare(obs).execute()
(array([ 2. , 6.66666667]), array([ 0.84914504, 0.24663415]))
By setting ``axis=None``, the test is applied to all data in the array,
which is equivalent to applying the test to the flattened array.
>>> chisquare(obs, axis=None).execute()
(23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565)
>>> chisquare(obs.ravel()).execute()
(23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565)
`ddof` is the change to make to the default degrees of freedom.
>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], ddof=1).execute()
(2.0, 0.73575888234288467)
`f_obs` and `f_exp` are also broadcast. In the following, `f_obs` has
shape (6,) and `f_exp` has shape (2, 6), so the result of broadcasting
`f_obs` and `f_exp` has shape (2, 6). To compute the desired chi-squared
statistics, we use ``axis=1``:
>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12],
... f_exp=[[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8], [8, 20, 20, 16, 12, 12]],
... axis=1).execute()
(array([ 3.5 , 9.25]), array([ 0.62338763, 0.09949846]))
"""
return power_divergence(f_obs, f_exp=f_exp, ddof=ddof, axis=axis, lambda_="pearson")
```