Source code for mars.tensor.stats.chisquare

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from .power_divergence import power_divergence

[docs]def chisquare(f_obs, f_exp=None, ddof=0, axis=0): """ Calculate a one-way chi-square test. The chi-square test tests the null hypothesis that the categorical data has the given frequencies. Parameters ---------- f_obs : array_like Observed frequencies in each category. f_exp : array_like, optional Expected frequencies in each category. By default the categories are assumed to be equally likely. ddof : int, optional "Delta degrees of freedom": adjustment to the degrees of freedom for the p-value. The p-value is computed using a chi-squared distribution with ``k - 1 - ddof`` degrees of freedom, where `k` is the number of observed frequencies. The default value of `ddof` is 0. axis : int or None, optional The axis of the broadcast result of `f_obs` and `f_exp` along which to apply the test. If axis is None, all values in `f_obs` are treated as a single data set. Default is 0. Returns ------- chisq : float or ndarray The chi-squared test statistic. The value is a float if `axis` is None or `f_obs` and `f_exp` are 1-D. p : float or ndarray The p-value of the test. The value is a float if `ddof` and the return value `chisq` are scalars. See Also -------- scipy.stats.power_divergence Notes ----- This test is invalid when the observed or expected frequencies in each category are too small. A typical rule is that all of the observed and expected frequencies should be at least 5. The default degrees of freedom, k-1, are for the case when no parameters of the distribution are estimated. If p parameters are estimated by efficient maximum likelihood then the correct degrees of freedom are k-1-p. If the parameters are estimated in a different way, then the dof can be between k-1-p and k-1. However, it is also possible that the asymptotic distribution is not chi-square, in which case this test is not appropriate. References ---------- .. [1] Lowry, Richard. "Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics". Chapter 8. .. [2] "Chi-squared test", Examples -------- When just `f_obs` is given, it is assumed that the expected frequencies are uniform and given by the mean of the observed frequencies. >>> import mars.tensor as mt >>> from mars.tensor.stats import chisquare >>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12]) (2.0, 0.84914503608460956) With `f_exp` the expected frequencies can be given. >>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], f_exp=[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8]).execute() (3.5, 0.62338762774958223) When `f_obs` is 2-D, by default the test is applied to each column. >>> obs = mt.array([[16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], [32, 24, 16, 28, 20, 24]]).T >>> obs.shape (6, 2) >>> chisquare(obs).execute() (array([ 2. , 6.66666667]), array([ 0.84914504, 0.24663415])) By setting ``axis=None``, the test is applied to all data in the array, which is equivalent to applying the test to the flattened array. >>> chisquare(obs, axis=None).execute() (23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565) >>> chisquare(obs.ravel()).execute() (23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565) `ddof` is the change to make to the default degrees of freedom. >>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], ddof=1).execute() (2.0, 0.73575888234288467) `f_obs` and `f_exp` are also broadcast. In the following, `f_obs` has shape (6,) and `f_exp` has shape (2, 6), so the result of broadcasting `f_obs` and `f_exp` has shape (2, 6). To compute the desired chi-squared statistics, we use ``axis=1``: >>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], ... f_exp=[[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8], [8, 20, 20, 16, 12, 12]], ... axis=1).execute() (array([ 3.5 , 9.25]), array([ 0.62338763, 0.09949846])) """ return power_divergence(f_obs, f_exp=f_exp, ddof=ddof, axis=axis, lambda_="pearson")